Added to the direct pressures of benefits reform, I felt a weight of expectation and judgement from the images. Neither set of images said much about me, yet they became deeply personal. Since there was no way to escape the heat of the images, I decided to try and make sense of their power. Collating the images, I analyse them here against a backdrop of visual inquiry theory. I consider the process through which their meanings are made, how they shape and reinforce a collective ‘picture in the mind’ of what it is to be a disabled person. I look beneath the surface to examine their real-world impact. Finally, I explore possibilities for contesting these images and for disabled people’s creation of counter images, in order to tell a different kind of story of what it is to be us.
–Liz Crow, “Scroungers and Superhumans: Images of Disability from the Summer of 2012: A Visual Inquiry” in Journal of Visual Culture (2012).
Note: She does not include images in the article because she believes that the images are already culturally embedded.
I think that I need to really get a sense of what visual ethnography is, who does it, how it is done, and why it is done before I move forward. In turn, this morning I did a journal search for visual journals to see who is publishing about it. Without much thought, I typed in “visual” to the library e-journal search page at UNC, and I found a bunch of potentially relevant journals! I’ve listed them here along with some notes about what I’ve discovered thus far. When I landed on the journal’s home page, I first searched for the term “ethnography.” If it did not generate any results, I then looked at 2-10 of the most recent issues of the journal. Sometimes, I also searched terms like “health” and “disability.”
- Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation = very technical, didn’t offer anything for my project.
- Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine = focused on medical illustration and clinical medical photography, both past and present; publishes notes from the Health and Scientific Communication Organization; Wellcome Trust Library holdings; particularly attentive to issues of technology, such as if clinicians should take medical images on their cell phones
- Journal of Visual Culture = humanities and social-sciences oriented–definitely useful for my purposes; queries into ethnography, health, and disability were fruitful; however, most articles about visual representations of health and disability did not discuss ethnography; “Disability-Visuality” special issue in 2006
- Journal of Visual Literacy = design theories?
- Visual Anthropology = useful!
- Visual Anthropology Review = useful!
- Visual Communication Quarterly = useful! (some articles about photojournalism)
- Visual Culture and Gender = useful! published annually
- Visual Studies = searches for “health,” “disability,” and “visual ethnography” failed–might have to return at a later time
- Aguayo, Angela, and Stacy Jill Calvert. “Theatrical Bodies: Acting Out Comedy and Tragedy in Two Anatomical Displays” (Visual Communication Quarterly 2013).
- Benin, David, and Lisa Cartwright. “Shame, Empathy and Looking Practices: Lessons from a Disability Studies Classroom” (Journal of Visual Culture 2006).
- Bossen, Howard, et al. “Hot Metal, Cold Reality: Photographers’ Access to
Steel Mills” (Visual Communication Quarterly 2013).
- Cant, Alanna. “One Image, Two Stories: Ethnographic and Touristic Photography and the Practice of Craft in Mexico” (Visual Anthropology 2015).
- Crow, Liz. “Scroungers and Superhumans: Images of Disability from the Summer of 2012: A Visual Inquiry” (Journal of Visual Culture 2014) –> “And we need to create images that confront in more direct and provocative ways. We need images that use the process of meaning-making for effect, working with and subverting the existing binaries in order to create images that confront and disturb the viewer’s familiar readings” (177).
- Nead, Lynda. “Stilling the Punch: Boxing, Violence and the Photographic Image” (Journal of Visual Culture 2011). –> discusses photographing the body in pain
- Fewkes, Jacqueline H. “The Seductive Gaze Through the Gold Filter:
Representation, Color Manipulation, and Technology Choicesin Visual Ethnography” (Visual Anthropology Review 2008).
- Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Ways of Staring” (Journal of Visual Culture 2006).
- Gonzalez, Jennifer A. “Rhetoric of the Object: Material Memory and the Artwork of Amalia Mesa-Bains” (Visual Anthropology Review 1993).
- Gruber, David. “Theatrical Bodies: Acting Out Comedy and Tragedy in Two Anatomical Displays” (Visual Communication Quarterly 2011).
- Johnson, Ginger J. et al. “Drawings, Photos, and Performances: Using Visual Methods with Children” (Visual Anthropology Review 2012).
- Lenette, Caroline. “Visual ethnography and refugee women: Nuanced understandings of lived experiences” (Qualitative Research Journal 2013).
- Nelson, Erica, and David Howitt. “When target groups talk back: at the intersection of visual ethnography and adolescent sexual health” (Reproductive Health Matters 2013).
- Olszanowski, Magdalena. “Feminist Self-Imaging and Instagram: Tactics of Circumventing Sensorship” (Visual Communication Quarterly 2014).
- Pink, Sarah. “Digital–visual–sensory-design anthropology: Ethnography, imagination and intervention” (Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 2014).
- Stadhams, Dianna. “Look to Learn: A Role for Visual Ethnography in the Elimination of Poverty” (Visual Anthropology Review 2004).
Thorson, Bruce. “A Visual Voice Seldom Heard, Seldom Noted” (Visual Communication Quarterly 2013).